Space

OUTLINE

  • India’s space program stands out as one of the most cost-effective in the world.
  • 33 countries and three multinational bodies have formal co-operative arrangements in place with the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).
  • 30 spacecraft in differing orbital paths.
  • Through the last four decades, India’s space program has attracted global attention for its accelerated rate of development.
  • India’s cost-effective space program has launched 51 satellites for 20 countries to date and has the potential to serve as the world’s Launchpad.
  • The ISRO has forged a strong relationship with a large number of industrial enterprises, both in the public and private sector, to implement its space projects.
  • With the ISRO undertaking the development of cutting-edge technologies and interplanetary exploratory missions, there is a tremendous scope in contributions to the realization of operational missions and new areas such as satellite navigation.
  • The technologies licensed to industries for commercialization include Multi-Layer Printed Antenna Technology and DDV 100 Resin system. In addition to this, industries have been shortlisted for the know-how transfer of Dual Polarization LIDAR, Solid State Power Amplifier, Precision Tapping Attachment and EPY 1061 coating compound. There are a number of technologies identified for know-how transfer from ISRO. These include various types of adhesives and polymers, silica fiber and granule material, ceramics, pressure transducers, liquid level detectors, temperature sensors, silver plating and thermal control coating techniques, ground penetration radar, elastic-Raman Lidar, Lower Atmospheric Wind Profiling radar etc.

TECHNICAL CONSULTANCY:

  • ISRO provides technical consultancy services to industries and R&D institutions in diverse areas of its expertise. Some recent areas where consulting services have been provided are: gold plating application on MMIC-based Ku-band receiver and on aluminum boxes, fabrication of precision components, mechanical shock tests etc., to name a few.

Space activities in the country were initiated with the setting up of the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) in 1962.

The ISRO was established in August 1969.

The Government of India constituted the Space Commission and established the Department of Space (DOS) in June 1972 and brought ISRO under DOS in September 1972.

Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), in its 21st flight (PSLV-C19), launched India’s first radar imaging Satellite (RISAT-1) from Sriharikota on April 26, 2012 of which one orbited India’s Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT-1) and the other a French Remote Sensing Satellite SPOT-6 and the Japanese satellite PROITERES.

In its 22nd flight (PSLV-C21), PSLV successfully launched the French earth observation satellite SPOT-6, along with Japanese micro-satellite PROITERES from Sriharikota on 09.09.2012.

India’s heaviest communication satellite, GSAT-10, was successfully launched by Ariane-5 VA 209 from Kourou, French Guiana on 29.09.2012.

PSLV, in its 23rd flight (PSLV-C20), successfully launched Indo-French Satellite SARAL along with six smaller foreign satellites from Sriharikota on 25.02.2013.

ISRO currently has a constellation of nine communication satellites, 1 meteorological satellite, 10 earth observation satellites and one scientific satellite.

THE INDIAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANISATION (ISRO) :

  • The prime objective of ISRO is to develop space technology and its application to various national tasks.
  • Antrix Corporation Limited, the commercial arm of the Department of Space has undertaken a number of initiatives for the global marketing of space products and services. Antrix has continued to expand its market base.
  • There has been good progress in the provision of TTC support to international customers.
  • Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV): Its first launch took place in 1979 with two more in each subsequent year, and the final launch took place in 1982.
  • Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV): The first launch test was held in 1987, and three others followed in 1988, 1992 and 1994.
  • PSLV is capable of launching Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites into sun-synchronous orbits. It can also launch small satellites into geo-stationary transfer orbit (GTO). The reliability and versatility of the PSLV is proven by the fact that it has launched 30 spacecraft (14 Indian and 16 from other countries) into a variety of orbital paths so far.
  • Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV): The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, known by its abbreviation GSLV, is an expendable launch system developed to enable India to launch its INSAT-type satellites into geostationary orbit and to make India less dependent on foreign rockets. At present, it is ISRO’s heaviest satellite launch vehicle and is capable of putting a total payload of up to five tonnes to Low Earth Orbit.
  • Space science research activities are pursued at the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), the Space Physics Laboratory (SPL), the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL) and the Special Advisory Group (SAG) at the ISRO Satellite Center (ISAC). A number of space science research projects in the field of atmospheric science, astronomy and planetary exploration and science payload development activities are supported and implemented at various universities and research institutes by ISRO through the recommendations of ISRO’s Advisory Committee for Space Sciences (ADCOS).
  • Mars Orbiter Mission is ISRO’s first interplanetary mission to Mars with a spacecraft designed to orbit Mars in an elliptical orbit of 372 kms by 80,000 kms. The primary driving technological objective of the mission is to design and realise a spacecraft with a capability to reach Mars (Martian Transfer Trajectory), then to orbit around Mars (Mars Orbit Insertion) over a period of nine months.

FDI POLICY

  • Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) up to 100% is allowed in satellites-establishment and operation, subject to the sectoral guidelines of the Department of Space/ISRO, under the government route.

SECTOR POLICY

Satellite Communication Policy:

  • A policy framework for Satellite Communication in India (approved by Government in 1997).
  • The norms, guidelines and procedures for implementation of the Policy Framework for Satellite Communications in India, approved by the government in the Year 2000.
  • INSAT Co-ordination Committee.
  • Remote Sensing Data Policy 2011.
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